Laparoscopy, also known as keyhole surgery, refers to a minimally invasive surgical procedure which is performed using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is essentially a small fibre-optic instrument with a camera and lens connected to it.
If you need surgery for an abnormal growth in the kidney such as a kidney cancer, your entire kidney may not need to be removed. Depending on your tumor location and size, you may be able to undergo surgery that removes the growth itself surrounded by a small rim of normal kidney tissue whilst preserving as much normal healthy kidney tissue as possible. This surgery is called a Partial Nephrectomy or kidney-sparing surgery.
A radical nephrectomy is a procedure to remove cancer in and around one of your kidneys. The surgeon removes the kidney, ureter (the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder), and surrounding connective tissue, lymph nodes, and adrenal gland.
Urine produced by the kidney is collected in the kidney pelvis. From kidney pelvis urine flows to urinary bladder through the ureter, the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. Blockage to the flow of urine experienced in the junction of ureter and kidney pelvis is known as pelvi-ureteric (PUJ) junction obstruction. This is usually found as a genetic abnormality. Stones and cancer can also cause PUJ obstructions. Urgent treatment is warranted in such cases as the situation can lead to severe pain, infections and damage to the kidneys.