Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound are used to diagnose and treat diseases
Radiographs are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient. The X-rays are projected through the body onto a detector an image is formed based on which rays pass through versus those that are absorbed or scattered in the patient. An X-ray tube generates a beam of X-rays, which is aimed at the patient. The X-rays that pass through the patient are filtered a device is X-ray filter, to reduce scatter, and strike an undeveloped film, which is held tightly to a screen of light-emitting phosphors in a light-tight cassette.
Ultrasound to visualize soft tissue structures in the body in real time, but the quality of the images obtained using ultrasound is highly dependent on the skill of the person performing the exam and the patient's body size. Examinations of larger, overweight patients may have a decrease in image quality as their subcutaneous fat absorbs more of the sound waves. This results in fewer sound waves penetrating to organs and reflecting back to the transducer, resulting in loss of information and a poorer quality image
Because ultrasound imaging techniques do not employ ionizing radiation to generate images (unlike radiography, and CT scans), they are generally considered safer and are therefore more common in obstetrical imaging. The progression of pregnancies can be thoroughly evaluated with less concern about damage from the techniques employed, allowing early detection and diagnosis of many fetal anomalies. Growth can be assessed over time, important in patients with chronic disease or pregnancy-induced disease, and in multiple pregnancies.